Nowadays, the issue of terrorism dominates the agenda of sociologists, practitioners, and scientists, who are interested in ensuring the international stability and security. The modern world has entered a new era of cruel wars, in which the national, criminal, ideological, and religious groups fight for an opportunity to continue the struggle and achieve many benefits in a dishonest way. Today, the USA is deservedly described as the main target of growing global terrorism. The era of terrorization urges the authorities to rethink their representation and vision about how they cooperate with other countries. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully and thoroughly examine the country’s international position on this issue, update old and develop new geopolitical theories that will help to form the foreign policy taken in consideration the specificity of the global relationships today.
No doubt, terrorism is the most dangerous and threatening phenomenon of the modern times that is difficult to predict since it may take various forms and lead to irreversible consequences. Terrorist attacks often bring massive casualties, involve the destruction of material and spiritual values that cannot be restored for a long time. These actions sow enmity among the nations, provoke war, distrust and hatred between the social and ethnic groups, which sometimes cannot be overcome within a generation. In the global scale, terrorism has become a factor of geopolitical influence of the world powers.
The attacks on the United States in 2001 have become a challenge for the entire nation, and, therefore, Americans must take decisive actions to preserve peace and stability. These dramatic and tragic events have become a part of continuous violence against the democratic state. The September 11 terrorist incidents have shocked the world because of the irreproachable organization of extremists, their ability to capture and direct the aircrafts toward the buildings thus leading to mass casualties and destruction.
The topic of terrorism is included in the modern geopolitical agenda. The main aim of this activity is to disrupt the old arrangement and impose a new one. Terrorists regard their actions as the way to solve political problems by the systematic use of terror and violence. Extremists are usually described as altruists to demonstrate in what way they develop own system of beliefs. Terrorists also consider their violent actions as necessity that will bring benefit. Such rhetoric implies that all peaceful and conventional directions are closed, and the recourse to violence is the only means to pursue the political goal that will provide justice to the oppressed groups. The geopolitical agency of terrorists focuses on violence that is designed to have a long-lasting and strong political influence. These groups’ objective can be defined as the geographic and political altruism.
Political injustice is formed due to the geographical location, which creates and perpetuates it. Any proposed alternative will require the development of a new geographic arrangement. Hoffmann mentions that the inextricable link between geography and politics with regard to terrorism is most clearly expressed in the national separatism. The striking examples are the Basque separatists and Irish Republican Army. Their demands reflect the understanding that the current territorial expression is unfair as it prevents the full expression of these groups’ national identity. The main objective is to redraw the political boundaries that will lead to the national liberation. The solution needs the new geography. The current political injustice is the result of shortcomings and the oppressive arrangement. Since geography is an integral part of terrorists’ strategies, the changing agenda will produce new locations of extremist activities, including domestic attack patterns.
In order to examine terrorism in the geopolitical context, there is a need for a more balanced approach taking into account practices associated with this phenomenon. Many countries are preoccupied with the Central Asian security environment as the region tries to cope with rivalry, corruption, religious extremism, distrust of the government, poverty, authoritarian leadership, and political instability. The region is vulnerable to the challenges as the young nations continue to undergo significant transformation in various spheres of life.
The beginning of the twenty-first century has demonstrated the likely dominance of terrorism and intimidation in the global geopolitics, especially after the September 11 tragic events. The military conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq confirm this view. However, after the financial crisis of 2008, the global geopolitics has undergone numerous changes. The Euro collapse can lead to a severe crisis of unprecedented scale, the Middle East is going through revolution, and the United States is preoccupied with the growing power and economic progress of China. Today, Iran and its nuclear weapon dominate the news headlines, and the West is concerned about the possible horrific attacks from Islamists. Therefore, one may say that the world is still living in the instant fear because of terrorism.
Inequality in the military capabilities and readiness to participate in the anti-terrorist agenda involve new challenges for the transatlantic relations. The gaps continue to grow. Disconnect between the Europeans’ desire to participate or lead in the decision-making process and their abilities to provide support and funding to the credible forces still exists. It is crucial to identify the way, in which the European authorities can successfully apply their economic and diplomatic skills and reach the set goals. Similarly, based on the significant experience of the fight against terrorism in Europe, special attention should be given to expanding the scope of cooperation in the fight against terrorist threat. Therefore, the USA has to pay attention to the realistic effects of the increasing gap in the defense power of each country. There is a clear tendency that America’s expenses have grown because of September 11 attacks. It will also create complex circumstances in which the management of U.S.-European relationship will be based on parity.
The problem of international terrorism and the ability to effectively deal with it has been discussed by the analysts and politicians for a long time. In the modern world, geopolitics is based on the vision of the conflict nature of the political geography. It takes into consideration not only the contradictions between the states, but also the conflicts between civilizations and their different types. While talking about the geopolitical background of terrorism, it is important to mention the cases, in which the terrorist activity is used for the benefit of one of the two poles of the world against another one. During the Cold War, terror has been expressed in the ideological forms of confrontation between the two systems. Today, geopolitical processes and the corresponding balance of power are undergoing significant qualitative changes.
Terrorism as a global threat of the present day affects every person in the world. The fight against terrorism requires the coordination and adequate solutions. The extremist attacks on the United States in 2001 have demonstrated the need for urgent work and elaboration of new initiatives that will contribute to the elimination of potential threats. In the age of terrorism, the USA is faced with many issues that require proper and immediate resolution. The presence of weapons of mass destruction has provided extremists with a great opportunity to threat the world and disrupt the stability. In addition, the absence of bipolar world prevents conducting the war on terrorism successfully. However, effective joint efforts of the authorities and all individuals concerned will help to make the world safer thus preserving lives of millions of people.