Job analysis is the process of subdividing jobs into elements using a systematic and formal procedure necessary for collection, synthesis and analysis of data. There are several methods of undertaking job analysis, but it is imperative to find out which one is the most suitable. This can be done by systematic gathering of views expressed by the experienced analysts concerning each method’s quality. There are seven most effective methods of analyzing jobs. They are scales of ability requirements, questionnaire for analyzing a position, functional job analyses, inventories of various tasks, method of looking at job elements, analyses of traits of threshold and the critique of critical incident. Contrarily, job evaluation is the process of systematically or methodologically defining the extent to which a job position is worth in an organization in relation to other positions. The primary underlying rationale for conducting a job evaluation exercise in an organization is to ensure that the pay structure is more equitable. This is because it can assist in making both internal and external comparisons so that the management achieves a common language necessary for the analysis of the relative worth of workers and jobs. It also enables organizations to be consistent and orderly and rational in judgment so that the structure of the organization is well maintained and defined.
Types of Job Analysis Used by the Department of Defense
The Military Services Department employs a wide range occupational or job analysis methods to enhance their better performance. One of the techniques commonly used by the Department of Defense is observation method. This technique is used to ascertain the task factor ratings such as task difficulty and training acquired by the military personnel. The officers are allowed to demonstrate their competences and acquired military prowess and the observed results systematically recorded. The rationale for this is to assign the officers according to their areas of specialty and competence. It is, therefore, a continuous exercise that aims at selecting the best manpower for a particular assignment. The other most commonly used method is personal interview. A one-on-one interview with the military personnel is conducted with the aim of establishing personality suitability of each officer. This also helps in duty allocation based on the strengths and weaknesses of each military resource personnel. These techniques aid them in meeting the needs of their human resources planning and management. They also assist them in validating their initial specialty skills and reviewing their job classification structure. Further, military expenses can significantly be cut by engaging the services of only the qualified in a particular task.
Methods of Job Evaluation Used by my Organization
There are basically two methods of job evaluation employed by my organization since it still operates on a small-scale mode and the jobs are relatively few. The first one is ranking method, which is straightforward qualitative method used in rating jobs, depending on how they are valued by a company, from the highest downwards. It is commonly used by small organizations that are still growing because it is easy to implement, understand and inexpensive. The second one is classification method. In this technique, job descriptions for each class is established and written and then the job classes are matched with the best job grade. It is suitable for my organization because it is simple to understand and develop and, therefore, appropriate for growing organizations. It also highlights the differences that exist between jobs based on their features.
One of the recommendations for improving the validity of data gained from my organization’s job evaluation process is to combine the two methods each time the process is conducted in order to optimize the accrued advantages of the resultant synergy. This enables the organization to compare the data collected by each method at the end of the process, especially pertaining to areas of significant deviation and interrogate the reasons for the disparity.
Process Used to Tie the Job Descriptions to Criteria for Candidate Selection
Before a suitable job candidate is selected, it s good to come up with a comprehensive job description. It is matched with the credentials of the applicant. The preparation of a job description is in three steps. The first step is to choose a job title to help in clearly defining the job position for the purposes of rendering authority and responsibility to the job holder. Step two is to identify particular activities, various responsibilities and duties. This is done by defining the basic elements of the job title such as what the position holder is expected to actually do and the specific activities. These elements are then matched with appropriate education, experience and training or skill. The third step is to write a capsule description of the job position. This is a brief description of the purpose of the job and the associated major responsibilities. In this section, the nitty-gritty details about the job position are given such as the supervisor of the position, hours worked, salary offered and the level of flexibility expected and any benefit attached to the position. Once this is done, the last thing is to organize the selection criteria into four headings namely; education, specific knowledge and skills, non-specific knowledge and skills and personal traits and attributes.
Ways of Improving the Structure for Compensation
An organization can better its compensation structure in many ways. As a recommendation, I propose the following ways of matching the strategic targets towards realizing equitable pay for things like rates and scales, both internally and externally pay. One of the most effective ways is to use broadbanding technique. This involves consolidating many different traditional grades into a small number of expanded ones. This method helps to establish a flatter structure by significantly cutting down the hierarchal layers to a small number. It also utilizes technology to a great extent and this helps in increasing the salaries by reducing the number of employees. The second approach to improve compensation structure of the workers in a given organization is to pay the employees for their knowledge, skills and competence as verified in their testimonials and certification and other related credentials submitted at entry or later. This technique is effective because it adds to the employees’ bottom line by translating their qualifications into improved performance of jobs assigned. In other words, it benchmarks the employees with their qualifications instead of their job titles. In addition, it reduces cases of employees’ absenteeism, accident frequencies and turnover and this improves the productivity of the organization.
In summary, it is necessary for different organizations to undertake job analysis and job evaluation using some of the best criteria described in this paper. At the end of such a noble exercise, progressive decisions should be made by the management pertaining to the findings. One of the reasons why organizations spend a lot of money with little output is failure to analyze and evaluate their manpower on their competence, skills and qualifications. Suitability of employees helps in optimizing the financial resources of an organization by engaging the services a few must most qualified. It is also important to point out that the exercises should be periodically conducted because this will reduce redundancy and duplication of roles. A good job analysis and job evaluation process that is diligently conducted enables the organization to improve its resource efficiency. As cited in the paper, a more synergized approach can be taken for better results by combining two or three methods at the same time when undertaking the exercises. This helps in comparing the data collected from each exercise and benchmarking with a more accurate finding. It also assists in establishing the most reliable techniques that can be relied upon in the future.