The paper studies the current situation in such social institution as family, and mainly homosexual marriages and obstacles, which people overcame on the way of achieving goals. It took quite a long time for the majority of people to treat such kind of relations as normal. Each country has its own opinion in the legalizing of the same-sex families. The quantity of same-sex families expanded incredibly in liberal society. The acceptance of such a notion faced a lot of difficulties, including the fault in sexual infections spreading, the fear for the psychological health of children brought up by homosexual parents. There were many cases, won in the court in the USA on the way of defending democratic rights and legalizing same-sex marriages. In addition, young gays and lesbians make rush decisions, mixing up the passion of love with serious thoughts about marriage. A homosexual family is a contrasting option to interpersonal relations, which ought to be viewed as the standard, instead of deviance.
The problems, caused by social changes in the traditional family over the past two centuries, have always attracted attention of sociologists. The process of transformation of traditional societies to modern forms stimulated changes in traditional family and affected primarily the western countries. At the end of the nineteenth century sociologists noted the alteration of traditional institutions – family, neighborhood, craft shops, etc., since changes in society could not but cause similar changes in its components, including the family. Life over the past decades has changed significantly. The phrase “same-sex marriage” caused before, at least, bewilderment, turning into a light shock in the majority of people. Today, even people heard about gays and lesbians and have a normal attitude to this notion. The paper analyzes the present situation in such social organization as family, and for the most part same-sex marriages and restrictions, which individuals overcame on the way of accomplishing objectives.
Same-sex marriage is the marriage between persons of the same sex. Indeed, people have become much more democratic and easier to treat same-sex love. The article by Jowett and Peel investigates how the British media built common partnership. In many countries, there is an active movement in support of such marriages. In particular, in the Netherlands, Belgium, Canada, Spain, Norway, Sweden, South Africa, and in the USA same-sex marriages are officially allowed. The only thing these couples are not allowed is to adopt children. The list of countries, where same-sex marriages are legalized, is expanding every year. Promoters of same-sex marriage regularly emphasize on the ordinariness of homosexuality, attest the similar features amongst same and diverse sex connections and contend that marriage is a human right and identity issue. Cairo International UN Conference on Population and Development in 1994 played an important role in the process of legalization of “homosexual family” in the international community. The Cairo Conference adopted a Program of Action on Population regulation. Principle 9 of the Program consolidated equality and equivalence of different types of sex unions, including same-sex unions. This postulate caused a sharply negative assessment by the delegations from the Vatican and Latin America. Debates about same-sex marriage and civil partnership have been polarised both within and outside lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans and queer (LGBTQ) communities.
Notwithstanding the present attitude to the same-sex marriage, they objectively exist. Creating a same-sex family, which is based on fairly well-established principles, like the common union, can barely do any harm to society and its members. A same-sex union is just a common and mindful choice of two grown-ups, who have the chance to self-assurance in view of individual inclinations in sex. In this way, it has the privilege to exist. Perhaps, opponents should not interfere with the desire of homosexual people to give to their sexual inclinations legitimate character. According to sociologists, the deviation from the classical monogamy cannot be clearly interpreted as abnormal, but should rather be seen as evidence of substantial and irreversible evolutionary changes in the institution of the family. The number of same-sex families increased greatly in modern society. It is a fact that must be admitted, even for those, who were active opponents of gay relationships. At the same time, there is an information vacuum in society, the lack of objective and reliable information about same-sex families. Nevertheless, these populace-based assets are not ready to enlighten us concerning gay or lesbian single guardians or non-residential guardians. Searching statistics on the number of same-sex marriage is quite complicated, because the collection of this information is extremely difficult. The main reason is the fear of discrimination. However, it is believed that women form a marriage oftener, than men do. This can be explained by the fact that two women living together cause less suspicion. Perhaps in social reality there really are two gold standards of family stability and context for childrens flourishing a heterosexual stably-coupled household and the same among gay/lesbian households.
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Different countries have a different opinion on this issue. The Netherlands turned into the primary nation on the planet that legalized same-sex marriages. The law allowing same-sex marriages and adoption of children by such families came into force in April 2001. Homosexuals may enter into a civil marriage by the usual ceremony at City Hall, as well as heterosexual couples. However, the investigation of Norwegian and Swedish same-sex marriages takes note of that separation chance is higher in same-sex relational unions. At the conclusion of such marriages between people of non-Dutch nationals, one of them must necessarily permanently and lawfully resident in the Netherlands. Mayors also have the right to deny registration of such marriages. The right of adoption by homosexual couples is also limited. Besides, the supplementary translation of imperative articles from the most recent time frames shows that the accomplished agreement is reliable with the point of view of “no distinctions” on results for offspring of same-sex guardians. Possibility for adoption was determined by various prerequisites, including living respectively for candidates no less than three years. Of course the flourishing of children involves many other factors besides parental relationship structure and decision making, as analyses of the NFSS and numerous other datasets confirm.
In the US, members of sexual minorities have started to fight for the right to enter into marriage with each other in the 1970s, at the beginning of the civil rights movements of racial minorities. This idea, which was initially rejected by American society, procured the privilege to live after some time. Another important fact in rejection of same-sex marriages was the connection with different sexually transmitted infections. Utilizing a state-level board dataset, we appraise the associations between same-sex marriage laws and syphilis and gonorrhea. After the European Court of Human Rights required the registration of transsexuals unions in the USA another flood of debate and litigation rose, this time focused on the acceptability of homosexual marriages and their compliance with the US Constitution. Concentrating on the US, sociologists find that laws allowing same-sex marriage raised the marriage rate and brought down the aborting rate furthermore, rate of youngsters in female-headed families.
Supporters of traditional and religious values, insisting on the fact that the family – is a union between a man and a woman, initiated the referendum. In February 2012, the Court of Appeal in San Francisco overturned a valid California ban on gay marriage, considering that the sole purpose of the introduction of the ban was the appropriate discrimination of sexual minorities. A central component of the legal debate concerning recognition of same-sex unions addressed whether and how outcomes for children raised by same-sex parents differ in comparison to children raised in other family configurations.
From the point of psychology, a marriage brings the relationship to the last stage, giving them the ultimate goal, the kind of perfection that previously was not available to same-sex relationships. However, for the majority of heterosexuals, a good marriage is still a desirable goal and a source of happiness, and they hope that their homosexual children and friends will also be able to find and share it. In reality, the evidence recommends that home situations given by lesbian and gay parents are as likely as those given by hetero parents to support and empower a psychosocial development of children. Try not to resent their unexpected persistence; try to look at it as a sign of inclusion and acceptance. Nevertheless, there is one cautionary note: some young homosexuals can rush to marriage before they will be ready for it. It looks like a refuge from the constant change and the groundlessness of the social world of homosexuals living in cities. Young gays seem to combine cynicism and romanticism in an unusual mix: they are too cynical in relation to the world and too romantic to themselves and their partners. They need to acquire sufficient experience in relation to being able to distinguish between the passion of love or even thoughts about marriage. Young lesbians are particularly easy to gravitate to the hasty marriage. Some opponents of same-sex parenting have made egregious overstatements, disparaging gay and lesbian parents. The psychological need for partnership ties seem strongly expressed in many women – usually, they urge young people to enter into marriage. In addition, the joint desire of the two women on the ability of a union appears long before they are able to learn that fit together.
Modern science, sexology, in particular, converge in the fact that homosexuality is not a disease and not an aberration, but a form of human sexual orientation, equivalent of heterosexuality and bisexuality. It is not related to sex or to gender, and is not due to upbringing and environment, but due to genetics and characteristics of natural progress, including the impact of hormonal variables. Although the number of households headed by same-sex parents have rapidly increased over the past few decades, their proportion in the population remains very small.
Gays and lesbians should have the same fundamental rights as heterosexuals (contrary to popular misconceptions, no special rights they require for themselves), including the right to legalize their relationship. A popular position, “we recognize you and do not touch, do whatever you want behind closed doors” – in fact, stands against human rights. A marriage has not only an ethical but also a legal side. The main problem is that the partners who are not married, are not considered members of the family from the point of view of the law and the subjects of family relationships.
Creating a same-sex family, which is based on the principles established quite similar to the traditional union is unlikely to cause any harm to society as a whole and its individual citizens. If same-sex union is the conscious and mutual decision of two adults, who have the right to decide their own destiny to suit individual preferences in sex, it clearly has a right to exist. Based on the reviewed aspects of same-sex families one can try to answer the question of normality or pathology of this phenomenon. Academic community accepted the fact that homosexuality is not a pathology, not a disease, but the normal variations in social, interpersonal relations. The above-mentioned review did not find in the main areas of family activities – reproductive, educational, industrial, domestic, economic, emotional – fundamental limitations of the functionality of the analyzed family model.
The protection of the family foundations of European society has always the goal to create an environment, where all family members, especially children and adolescents could be surrounded by care, love and happiness, realize all their human abilities. Studies show that same-sex families in the education of the child are at least and often more responsible and attentive, than the traditional ones. On the other hand, life and partner satisfaction in gay families is sometimes higher, than in heterosexual. Taking into account all of the above, one can conclude that same-sex family is an alternative to interpersonal relations, which should be regarded as the norm, rather than pathology. Civil society in developed countries highlighted the wide range of human rights issues and, in particular, the rights of minorities (racial, ethnic, gender, etc., and, of course, sexual). Unconventional forms of family relationships, same-sex marriage etc., were supported by the active position of the communities that promoted such forms of behavior as a part of multiculturalism concepts.